"Nothing comes sailing over the sea by itself," said Themistocles,
"and I have brought with me two gods for the cause, Persuasion and Compulsion."
"I have seen many things
too", Galileo answered, "ah, ha ha, and I have one more. Confusion."
And any geocentric bartender at a yacht
club, reckoning that opinions do not die, should see that Galileo's notional rules of equivalence, in relatively false inertial frames of reference, with the suggestions of heliocentric invariance, and undetectable motion of the Earth, as supposedly "unaccelerated", and the theory of gravity that says horizontal and vertical motions are independent of each other yet compounded and equivalent, are false and
unscientific hoaxem -- useless theoretical babble, if not an execration text of some sort upon mankind perhaps.
course, when terminology and calculations are correct, however, it becomes rather evident that correlatives are interdependent and so is space. In other words, with complex figures and calculations, kept in a file closet, if the subject is not overly confused
by weird science, some people may start to recognize that the earth is authentically inertial, even stationary, and that the sun goes from east to west around it.
Horizontal motion ad infinitum, and its putative independence from the vertical, was a value item for Galileo because of the power hidden in the suggestion. A concept or vision like that, which would flood the mind with impressions of infinity in a line, could cause an overwhelmed
state. It could level people who could think about it for a long enough time, and who begin to wonder again what it means, if they were not stoned, or what it was that they had smoked.
If they were not fooled, maybe they could be hypnotized or fooled again?
The mind dumbfounded or startled by an impression beyond its comprehension can be made vulnerable even to mild powers of manipulation or hypnosis. If a weaker subject has been startled or awed, this can open a subtle step
into hypnotic induction, and for the sake of heliocentrism.
For instance, the fourth suggestion of the level and inclined plane, ad infinitum, from the earlier series of ramps and rolling balls in Galileo's
lab, may become a subtle technique of manipulative induction. Nonetheless, many people commit a mathematical
error and logical misstep and give the fourth ramp a free pass, even though it is not a valid method of scientific investigation.
From ulterior motives, to support an otherwise metaphysical opinion, that was merely philosophical preference and speculation, Galileo devised a sneaky system for working in the lab. However,
none of what he was doing was of any real scientific value in determining that the Earth orbits the Sun. Yet the vision of infinite motion
along a horizontal plane, in "absolute space", could dispose the mind like a trance to contemplate the mesmerising world of heliocentric "invariance": and the worlds of false equivalence too, in so many relative inertial frames of reference, where the astronomical motions of the Earth, also spinning
and flying around, would remain sensibly undetectable, of course, and "unaccelerated" due to gravity and inertia, yet somehow "scientific".
How tortured and ironic the scene for science becomes, sensuum defectui. Boredom may lead to anything, and not a little child, but a wagon of oxymorons and an idiot with lack of evidence shall lead them.
A strange way of reversals, to deny the evidence of the senses to justify bad logic, since people can already tell with common sense that the Earth is not orbiting
clouds or the sky, and neither the winds or hurricanes, and not the Moon, of course, and not fire, heat, or daylight as they are, and not the shadow of an eclipse, and not Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, Mercury, Regulus, or Mars, either, and so on ... then there
should be no scientific reason to believe that the Earth orbits the Sun in contradistinction of all these others should there? To distinguish the Earth at rest from a train in motion, therefore,
is one thing like so many others, that is yet so different from the Sun, since the sun appears so big and impressive, like Helios Apollo, when magnified and reflected many times over in the earth's atmosphere. Therefore, the day star may cause
confusion about which is in motion between it and the Earth and the calendar for the year.
Besides the special nature of the Sun, Newtonian fields of gravitation do not move anything; and when pilots venture into low earth orbit, where they can observe somewhat outside the magnifying affects on sunlight of the earth's lower
atmosphere, the sun looks smaller. In fact, from outer space, it looks as small as a tennis ball in the distance, a large one with a crown of spokes extending out from it. The closer a crew would get to it from a few hundred miles altitude, the smaller it
appears in the black background of outer outer space. Yet it makes such an impression in parallel to so many facts,
To overcome good judgment, therefore, Galileo added a spider's web of skillfully deceptive scientific
materialist induction, to support his theory. The law of falling bodies was an expansive principle of equivalence, in spite of so much change, like the infinite horizontal
plane. For example, a great doctrine of equivocation and nonsense among all weights and sizes would play for a universal, an actual universal in conclusion yet absurd to exist as
such, since conceptual relations are not strictly included among merely material things.(152) Yet a funny thing would happen about thoughts of motion to introduce the spinning top
that would be the Earth or the world into the hypnotic circuits of the brain.
Since according to heliocentrism,
the force of gravity acts on all bodies alike, regardless of shape, size, density, and composition, then it must be that the
influence of universal gravitation acts regardless of velocity as well, because the distance of fall and weight of an object are inclusive factors affecting velocity; and it is not to
be supposed that gravity makes a difference in velocity, but only atmospheric incidentals or other extraneous details, et cetera, or old-fashioned impetus and momentum. Since the
longer a cannonball falls, and the heavier it is, the more for acceleration, heliocentrism adds for convolution of distortion that vertical motion is independent of horizontal, and horizontal
motion is independent of vertical.
rules in vain would say that under the influence of gravity alone all bodies fall with the same uniform rate,
regardless of kind, and direction, and that there is a putative equivalence yet independence of the horizontal and the vertical, and the vertical and the horizontal, in "compound motion".
For the sake of an interpretation, the horizontal is exclusive of the vertical, as free fall would supposedly be independent of weight. It becomes evident then that not only are all weights equivocal, in terms of gravitation and inertia, but all
motions are as well. This residual principle of returning equivocation is so powerful with confusion that it is said with a straight face that due to gravity alone all falling
bodies descend at the same rate, regardless of horizontal motion.
To believe Galileo, horizontal motion does not affect vertical descent and time suspended in free fall, and the place to test this sort of thing would have to be
in more marginal situations of equivocation and insufficiency. For example, if at a Chuck E. Cheese restaurant a red ball is rolled down a chute, and it flies out laterally across the room, would it not hit the ground about the same time as a green ball dropped vertically from about the same
Not exactly, and "by spurning trifles little by little one may fall to the depths."(1) But it could be close enough for Galileo and spin doctors of heliocentrism,
and they say that the difference among these things for falling is in the air resistance anyway --- not the actual density and weight of the objects involved. Some things perhaps are not so easy to tell at first, as they are later, so little tricks could
be used to imply great cosmic conclusions. If it is only a matter of interpretation, micromanagement of context, and controlling the information, a misdefinition may go a long way, since often things that make an objective difference over time do not right
And what difference should it make, if the green ball is dropped from top of the
chute express or from the exit point of the red one, that flies out across the room? If the weight and horizontal direction of an object in free fall make no difference, then neither should the acceleration. If acceleration makes no difference, due to gravity,
then neither should altitude. If somebody jumps from twenty stories, it should be the same thing as jumping from a desk, for the sake of the gravitation involved, and due to distance for acceleration, as much as both cases stand in relation to each other as
one to one, and would be equally divisible by one, which is what the force of gravity equals anyway when inserted in any practical applications.
The inductive method about the horizontal and the vertical by oddness of termination and equvialnce is what led Newton to postulate that a minnie ball fired from a musket would land at the same time as another dropped from shoulder height, which is truly stupid, as stupid as saying all altitudes and accelerations are equal in terms
of gravity.(2) If horizontal and vertical motion are independent of each other, imagine firing a gun
horizontally and dropping a bullet from the same shoulder height as the gun. When the two bullets land, they will be far apart, and one will have traveled hundreds of yards while the other falls a few feet in a simple vertical line. According to Newton and Galileo, they will both reach the ground
within exactly the same quarter or fifth of a second! This is what it would mean for the bullet's horizontal motion
to be independent of its vertical, but this is not what happens. If there is any doubt about the follies of gravitation, fire a high powered rifle from a tripod support set low to the ground, and drop another bullet from the same height. They will not land
at the same time.
Suppose a bullet dropped from a certain height takes one second to reach the ground. Then according to the theory of independence of horiztonal from vertical motion, in gravitation, a bullet shot horizontally from the same height would also hit the ground in one second. This is not what happens with arrows much less bullets, but they say that even if a more powerful gun would send the bullet further, that bullet would still fall to the ground in one second
also, if only the Earth were perfectly flat. They would say that bullets shot horizontally with different amounts of force travel
different distances but fall at the same rate due to gravity.
According to the theory, for the first second
in the air a bullet falls 16 feet towards the ground. Then in proportion to the universal gravitational
equation for free fall acceleration, and little "g"(9.8), it falls 32ft/s2 over any following seconds.
example, it is said that a bullet dropped from 64 feet will take two seconds to to hit the ground and so on.
marble rolled off an elevation the same height as the bullets would supposedly take precisely the same time to fall to the ground as both the bullets: the one merely dropped and the one actually fired. Ridiculous as it could be, the horizontal and vertical in motion are not equivalent yet independent
from each other anyway, since clearly they are two different directions integrated within a plane or a
However, Galileo had a
better and more marginal illustration than Newton's musket balls. Galileo began the abstraction with a ship moving
at a steady and smooth course on a calm sea. On a sea of tranquility, a marble rolled off a table on board ship would take the same interval to reach the floor, whether the ship was sailing at a steady speed or standing still tied to moorings in the harbor. In the example, the idea is that the ship's lateral motion
across a calm sea should have no perceivable effect on the marble's vertical fall --- in the margin. From this example, Galileo would conclude that any moving object's horizontal and vertical motion would also take place independently.
But for gravity and a game of the fool once removed, the heliocentric principle of
relative inertia in relative frames of reference ends up in contradiction of this idea by equivocation. The
which in the which, for which is which, matters in art and science, "for, needless to say, there are not two ways of making an object well, of realising well the work conceived; there is only one, and it must not be missed".(3)
If the vertical fall is independent of the horizontal motion of the ship, why is it carried along, even in the littlest margins across the sea? If the marble is dropped from the point of a very high mast, located
at the very end of the ship, just inside the line, so as to land just within the perimeter of the deck, while the ship is full sails in forward motion, it will fall behind and into the waters of the deep blue sea, by at least a little bit.
Test it with priceless diamonds then, and gold they can have when not falling into the water, and they will want to move the test-point
further forward a bit, a little better to the inside of the deck. Clearly saving the coins, the horizontal and the vertical are not separate at all, since they are within the same 3-D sphere from all points of the graph.
Besides the idea that horizontal and vertical motions are independent, yet equivalent if compounded, Galileo juggled relative inertial
frames of reference with suggestions of heliocentric invariance, to justify the undetectable and unaccelerated motion of the Earth. The image of the boat with the smooth ride over open water was a way of leading into the bizarre idea that the astronomical
motion of the Earth around the Sun would be admittedly of a vast scale, yet completely undetectable because of gravity and inertia.
"Shut yourself up in a ship's cabin below decks with some butterflies and little finches, and some little fish swimming in a bowl, and a bottle of wine dripping water into a pan on the floor, and some golf balls," Galileo would
say, "and you could not tell from any of them whether the ship was moving or standing still. If the ship is moving at a constant and smooth speed and you cannot see outside a cabin window, you would not notice any difference from when you were
in port, as much as if you were sleeping. If the speed and direction of the ship are unchanging, one could almost say 'unaccelerated', the motion of the ship has no effect on events inside the cabin, on a very calm sea, which is because all objects
inside the cabin share in the constant motion of the ship."
"O for joy, fonte di gioia, the same
holds for the Earth itself, and all its passengers, as it flies along in its grand orbit around the Sun. This is the phenomenon of heliocentric invariance that is the undetectable and 'unaccelerated' motion of the Earth. So see the ship's cabin and the Earth are similar relative inertial frames."
However, this is not all that true, since however smooth and subtle a ride may be, its motion cannot take place in an instant. Natural motion is not and cannot be instantaneous
like that, for it always goes by two's, duo et duo, hae ingressa sunt. Bis per bis it item. Natural motion is a property of division and can occur only by divisions of time and space. However fine and micro-tuned the divisions may be, to examine natural
motion, there must always be at least two separate instants for any mobility to take place.
natural motion occurs by transition, and everything passing is gradual. When very sudden surprises or accidents happen, they follow because the things that were necessary for them were already in place.
Rest, on the other hand, has a secret near to instantaneous, das ding an sich. What is still and quiet is closer
to an instant of hypostasis, by way of a previous universal, unius in uno, having an already unitary equipoise per se. Whereas motion is not like that, something about immovability was always already there.
A stopped clock is right two times a day and always shows
only a given instant of time, but no motion of another working clock's hands can take place within that one instant. All progress is at least by two's, requiring two separate instants,
whereas stopped clocks do not require anything except the space to hang on the wall.
Galileo's foolishness that smooth motion is the same as rest was only to justify heliocentrism. Authentic
inertia is closer to instantaneous and does not have the divisive property of progress. Something that is peacefully and authentically at rest is not the same quality as anything that moves. Because rest is closest to instantaneous, whereas progress
is not, an authentic inertial frame per se is within an instant and of an instant, whereas a relative one is not, no matter how relatively smooth, subtle, and undetectable it may be.
Because on occasion the authenticity of a quality in a limited example may not be readily verifiable, by the senses at the time, it does not prove
an unequivocal conclusion. With his thought experiment about the ship of constant velocity and direction, Galileo had only put together another equivocation to justify heliocentrism. It is not much of scientific consequence. The experience of unchanging direction and speed in a vehicle that
is a relative inertial frame is not that profound to flip the cosmos out of its center.
by things in the margins, and being able to drink coffee or go to sleep in a train, without disturbance,
is not sufficient evidence for the wild conclusions of heliocentrism.
The notion of "compound motion" or "shared
motion", in "relative inertial frames", where the Earth would orbit the Sun, undercuts the doctrine of independence of horizontal and vertical motion anyway. Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655) carried out what were supposedly definitive experiments to test the nature
of inertia in 1640, when he had a galley rowed flat out at top speed in a calm sea, and dropped a series of little cannon balls (and not of styrofoam or balsa wood or helium) from the crow's nest to the deck. It is said that every ball fell at the
foot of the mast. None were left behind by the forward motion of the galley. Therefore, Galileo's rules of equivalence must be correct, he concluded, and the Earth must be flying around and around many contradictory speeds at once to orbit the Sun. And
no worries, because nobody can notice or feel any adverse effects from the detectable undetectable unaccelerated astronomical flight, due to the power of relativity in inertial/noninertial frames, et cetera.
Yet again by the dog of Egypt, or the peg of Clavileño, Gassendi on the galley was only getting lucky in the margins and in the tricks up the sleeves. In either case, whether the weight appears to fall behind
or not, and for how much, the horizontal is not independent of the vertical. Gassendi's test ship itself proves that the horizontal and the vertical are uniformly interdependent along all points, even if tested in the littlest margins. None of Gassendi's
tests could show that the horizontal motion of the deck was free of the vertical of mast or rudder. None of the galley experiments could show that the Earth was moving either, as much as no scientific experiment whatsoever has ever been able to demonstrate that
To support heliocentric doctrines of inertial relativity, gravity, and Newton's first law, the point would be that loose objects aboard ship are not affected by the ship's motion, as people and loose objects across the Earth are not confused by the
incredibly prodigious spinning flight of the Earth around the Sun. But the simple fact that sea-fastening is such an important
element of shipping is for good reasons, since loose objects in moving vehicles do tend to fall behind, and
come to rest near where they land, or sink to the bottom.
In Gassendi's example, the margins of relativity exploited in noninertial frames are not the major issue, since the fact remains that
things loosed from vehicles in motion separate and tend to come to rest after them, as the Earth is always at rest before them. In other words, drop from higher up and further back on the boat, like a few times as high and just from within
the edge of the stern, by the wisdom of the ball, or the thumb nail of a clown. At some height, if not that, the weights will start falling behind the ship and into the water.
Sun could not be moving the Earth because of gravity anyway, and the Earth is not moving the Moon, because gravity is not a transverse force, and not any kind of strong force, and not universal or cosmic; and, in fact, it is so weak that it is not really
even a force of any active measure in real physics. The tiniest baby birds overpower gravity for worms, much less to get up the nerve to fly, and the Sun simply could not be moving the Earth by such a weak force, and neither could the Earth be moving
the Moon by it, or for the wings of a luna moth.
If the question is how people can drink coffee or eat soup in a car, without
spilling it, or how someone can read a book on an airplane, obviously it is because nondisruptive motion to a natural degree is possible. Movement does not have to be abrupt, unnatural, disturbing, violent, or chaotic to occur. With enough ease and
free association, some motions may become as gracefully wonderful as a vision, like Clavileño the Swift in the air and then the sky, and sometimes also go unnoticed --- but not enough to have the earth or the sun go many different speeds at
There may be occasionally a general motion like time itself that is so fluent that
is almost beyond notice, like a grammatical abstraction in words, for example, a genitive of association like "commoda pacis", "the advantages of peace". But the passage of time and motions that are continuous and effortless --- and the advantages
of peace and grammar --- are noticeable. They can be appreciated, and they would only be imperceptible as a manner of speaking. If for the oblivious, it is one way, yet they are within sight to others. They do become apparent, and even motions that are
abstract are recognizable, as much as signs and concepts, as like tends to go to like and increase occurs even in the mind.
Nevertheless, to forefeit the burdens of common sense,
Galileo would say that horizontal motion would run ad infinitum were it not for adverse affects from friction. His system was like a little series of combinations, tricks, and computations in neurolinguistic programming, to help sew things together. After
a while, the cosmic ideas being juggled here and there, between marbles, the Sun, and the Moon, the horizontal and the vertical, and the hypnotic suggestions of infinity in outer space, may exhaust people, as they gaze into the abyss, and they may even succumb
to a subtle process of induction, abyssus abyssum invocat. With the right audience, Galileo could have everybody convinced that the Earth orbited the Sun, and the cow flew over the Moon.
If “almost all people are hypnotics, the proper authority saw to it that the proper belief should be induced, and the people believed properly."(4)
And Galileo wrote in conclusion, "but if the plane is limited and elevated, then the moving particle, which we imagine to be
a heavy one, will on passing over the edge of the plane acquire, in addition to its previous uniform and perpetual [horizontal] motion,
a downward propensity due to its own weight; so that the resulting motion which I call projection is compounded of one which is uniform and horizontal and of another which is vertical and naturally accelerated."(5)
bag of marbles and soaring Earth, Galileo could start an induction process into the hypnosis of Copernicanism from almost anywhere. By having his students imagine an infinite plane,
with a ship that would be sailing on it in open water, over vast enchantments of limitless ocean and space, he could alter impressions and gain an edge.
A wonderful almost magical body of water surrounds the mind, with the effusion of peace, something mysterious, almost mystical and misty, and there is
the polished oak table, with the bag of marbles rolled one after one into the infinite horizontal plane, where they land and roll and roll away, on and on into "absolute space". The feeling of the marvelous innate touches the top and the bottom and accustoms all between. They are all rolling and landing and rolling in equivalent intervals of space and time. One after another, the energy and time are equable and continuous, flowing equivalence smoothly into the continuum of quintessence.
Galileo could call a student to the front and whichever one he would
be would be one virtually as all the others, and all the others virtually as him: whom for all and whereat an audience ready for heliocentric mind control and induction.
Reaching into his vest pocket, pulling out an impressive silver
pocket watch, attractively crafted and magical, with hypnotical mathematical designs, and porpoises, Galileo would speak with a rich soothing sound to his voice ... and mysterious timbre
for hypnosis and inductive trance.
He would begin swinging the watch back and forth --- back and forth smoothly.
Speaking, he would say, "the watch is like the subtle patterns of universal gravitation, applying a model wave from side
to side, back and forth, back and forth, by the special unity of the inverse squared in waves, to the farthest regions
of space ... round and round like universal gravity, subtending and subducted, like elastic metallic buckets in silver rain ... of spinning ... spinning water, in ellipses by the inverse squared. See the subtension of centripetence within is in forma dormative potens, not bewilderment.
O wha', O wha',
O wha', O wha',
O what a way we have in gravity. Wavy gravy of the inverse squared. Wavy gravy all over and the speed of light squared.
Reaching out to the student with his left hand, still swinging the silver pocket watch with the right, he would say, "here, hold out the hands, the magnetic hands, lift them level with the shoulders. Even the
hands feel an equipoise like magnetic plates, facing each other with an equanimity of form, as balanced sensitivity fields. And when I say dragonville and the sky sayeth Mercury, hear thee well what I say."
... watch, ear of silver like the Moon, and you like the Earth with associate gravity, associate gravity." Galileo
draws the students hands closer together, "closer, closer, only a cantaloupe apart, and closer still, the hands
are coming together closer and closer like gravity, pulling together to the common center of gravity."
"Therefore, when those hands touch, you shall go deeply into a trance and state of mutual gravitation, and sapient rest, but
do not go in until gravity comes out, when those hands touch. And when it is night, and calm is in the trees, and the breeze is like
many pooled waters, it all pools like this ... pooling, and pulling you, and it pulls you, so that ( Galileo claps the student's hands together) ... you sleep! Sleep and deep sleep."
"There, stay, and feel the transmission of
matter across the universe in waves ... pulling every other. All waves and parts smooth as one. Particles and pines, and soapberry trees of forest mountains pulling rivers and streams and waters of lakes and oceans. They pull back and forth gently, back and forth, and together by the inverse squared
of tranquillities. O munificent and unificent centripetence of the inverse squared. All things stretch together as one
--- the many as the one, and the one as the many, as many as they are, in an instant to the farthest regions of space. And time travels across millions and millions of miles of absolute
and relative dimensions."
"Gravity is the force: the ineffable force, transmitted with nothing to name it, of course. It is No-name other than unificent munificence and gravity. Wavy 'lectro gravy in No-name all over. Even
a grain of sand on Earth is magnified, magnified, shazza, shazza, shazza-lune and exercises an attractive force as far away as the Sun, without any medium, name, or means other than No-name, which is gravity again, of course, and Newton's esoteric wisdom, teaching solemn G's action-at-a-distance,
and greatest division by one.
The student would say, "Oh yes, I see it like open treasure and a charm. Wonderful
science and so much gravity."
would say, "sine nomine, see the gravity, feel the gravy, sine nomine wavy gravy and see the light, wonderfully connected centripetence, O loverly loverlies, O gravity in abundance. The
inverse squared of the ellipse and so much light, so much light. Feel the warmth, the beneficence."
The student answers, "I'm feeling it, and I see the shadow of a golden lady by the pond. It's snowing, and I see she's blond.
There's a light cresting over yonder wood duck woods."
At that point Galileo would say the words, "Dragonville!
Mercury! ... and stop", snapping his fingers powerfully to awaken the student to the universal bewonderment of gravity by
the inverse squared.
"O wha, O wha, O what a way we have in gravity."
And perhaps this is not too alien
for a way that people could be led by wavy gravy to believe that universal gravitation is subtending and subducted all over by the ellipse of the inverse squared, and that gravity causes the orbits of yonder Moon and stars, but it is not really a valid scientific
method. It could be like Einstein rolling by on a skateboard in nothing more than a fool's dream, and the radio.
is this the real life?
Is this just fantasy?
Caught in a landslide
No escape from reality
Open your eyes
Look up to the skies and see
A little high, little low
-- a little silhouetto of a man
Thunderbolt and lightning,
Very, very frightening