v = wr

4. When closer to Earth at perigee, the Moon travels slower not faster than when further away at apogee. For instance, when a big full moon appears over open water in the eastern horizon, it appears to have greater weight and presence then, than when it looks smaller and apprarently further away, of course. In the little lined section of the offing where it first rises, when closer and bigger at perigee, it also is going slower. The bigger it appears for the moment, the closer it appears too, and intelligent intuition is correct that when the moon is bigger in the sky, and closer at perigee, it travels slower than at apogee.

If it was so close, one evening, that it was almost touching the ocean or the mountains in the horizon like poetry, it would be going slower than it has ever gone before and appear bigger than it has ever appeared. The closest to Earth that the moon has ever been at super perigee is when it has loomed the biggest, and also gone the slowest. If it did come down and touch the ocean or the mountains, it would be going the slowest it has ever gone, and for the moment not even be moving, as the Earth itself is not moving.

With the sun and the stars, the moon circles the Earth in a continuum from East to West, clockwise when viewed from above the North pole; and it loses on average about one degree to the ecliptic for every two hours. It loses about one degree to the ecliptic for every two hours because the fixed stars of the constellations that are much further out in space are going much faster. All these stars are going from East to West around the Earth as well, and in just less than 28 days they will have all have passed the moon, and the moon will be back to another beginning in view of the stars and signs of the ecliptic, the stars that keep passing it up month to month through the years. The repetition of the sidereal month is not how long it takes for the moon to orbit the Earth.

The distance of the moon from the Earth and its celestial momentum may vary. When the moon transits slower, it loses a little more than one degree to the ecliptic for every two hours. When it transits faster, it loses a little less than one degree every two hours, because it is going from East to West around the Earth, as the stars are as well. If it were going from West to East, it would be the opposite case. As it went faster, if it were circling in the opposite direction of the stars, it would measure more change in terms of the background ecliptic, than when it is going slower; but the change measured in the moon’s degrees of the ecliptic is caused by the stars traveling faster than it around Earth.

Heliocentrism from Kepler and Newton, and even down to today, reverses the course of the moon, gets all this backwards, and teaches that when it is further away it goes slower and when closer it goes faster. 

In other words, Kepler’s Second Law, the “Law of Equal Areas”, that “a line joining a planet and the sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time,” is false, since when the moon and the sun are closer to Earth, they transit slower not faster, and then they encircle less area also. When further away, they transit faster, and encircle more overall area. The lines of radius joining the sun and the moon to the Earth do not sweep out equal areas during equal intervals of time.

For an estimate, the moon’s distance from Earth at apogee is close to 253,000 miles, and the moon orbits the Earth from east to west, clockwise when viewed from above the North pole, in an average of 24 hours and 50 minutes. Say that the radius of the Earth is about 3963 miles and the radius of the moon is about 1080 miles. For an estimate of the angular/circular velocity of the moon around the Earth, add the radius of the Earth and the moon to the distance number. At apogee, this number becomes 258,043 miles.
The formula for angular velocity is v = wr, where v is velocity, w in the case of the moon is 1 rot./24.833333 x 2pi radians/1 rot., and r is radius. Then v = (pi/12.4166666) x 258,043 miles = 65,288.5 mph.
Using the same formula for angular/circular velocity v = wr for the means and perigee of the moon, lower celestial momentum is indicated when the moon is closer to Earth. Say the mean distance of the moon is 240,000 miles, then that measure plus the Earth’s radius 3963, and the moon’s radius 1080, is 245,043. 245,043 miles x (pi/12.4166666) = 61,999.35 mph for the means.
In the same way, for velocity of perigee, say that the moon’s distance from Earth is 227,000 miles, then that plus 3963 and 1080 is 232,043. 232,043 miles x (pi/12.4166666) = 58,710.168 mph.
As v = wr relates to algebra and logic and that distance equals rate multiplied by time, and rate(velocity) equals distance divided by time, the set ratios of the numbers involved in the celestial motion of the moon around the Earth crunch inexorably against Kepler’s Second Law. As the time element incorporated within the denominator of “w” increases, as simple time, or as some little digits for math class after math class ad infinitum 24.833333 ~~~, “w” and radius and velocity all decrease as the property of division by time increases. As time in the denominator gets bigger, the property of division increases and reduces velocity and area of sweep covered.
It is not too difficult to see that more time means less velocity and less radius. As the distance between the Earth and the moon decreases, the speed also decreases; for whenever the time increases, rolled away in the denominator of “w”, like a governing hammer, it decreases everything in terms of radius and velocity from there, also decreasing the overall value of “w”.
The moon’s origin of celestial motion is separate from the Earth. The moon and the Earth are separated by vast distances in space, quite different from each other, obviously, and when the length of the moon’s separation from Earth increases, by logic and math and analysis of astronomy, its speed also increases, as v = (w)r, all other things being equal.
Every orbit of the Moon divides in four sections, and it does not appear to go from perigee to apogee within a quarter section, from horizon to midheaven, or midheaven to horizon; and it does not appear to go from apogee or perigee to the means in a quarter section either: it appears to orbit one gradual circle at a time, and the quarter sections have uniform curvature over the passage of time.
Every quarter section represents about 6 hours and 12 or 13 minutes, for an average. Circling the Earth from perigee to apogee and in the means over an extended number of days and nights and months, it does not appear to be going around the Earth in an ellipse.

Kepler believed that when one of the planets orbiting the sun neared the sun it would pick up acceleration, but then when further away it would decelerate. This notion became the basis of his “Law of Equal Areas”, that the line from a planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal intervals of time, also over the form of an ellipse; so that when a planet is closer to the sun, which would then be exercising greater “gravity” over it, it speeds up, and when further away, it slows down.

As to gravity, gravity does not cause acceleration, except in freefall going directly down, and in freefall, "gravity" works only vertically, not laterally. From wherever anyone can test it, gravity does not push or pull things horizontally in space, and the clear result of all gravity on Earth is that it brings things to rest. Gravity --- as compression and concentration of weight --- causes deceleration not acceleration. For instance, when media of greater density and weight than air, whether liquid or solid, would also affect the transmission of light, so would "gravity", with denser compaction than "anti-gravity", decelerate the speed of light. If it were a universal force, gravity would weigh things down, even the wavelengths of light. Slowing things down, gravity would tend to bring them towards an inertial stasis of equilibrium, not speed them up.

Kepler had strange occult ideas about the sun, the moon, and the cosmos, and added to the development of the unscientific notions of “universal gravitation” and occult action-at-a-distance that would become so pivotal for Newton. With no explainable or practical scientific connections, no applied mechanics, they postulated occult forces that were exercising powerful and vast spooky actions-at-a-distance.

The truth is that Kepler had no idea what specific power drove Mercury and Venus around the sun, so he imagined that the sun itself was somehow pushing and pulling them along in space by some mysterious force. He thought that the agency of this occult action-at-a-distance was greater and pushed harder when a planet like Venus or Mercury was nearer, and that the force of this occult action-at-a-distance was less and weaker when a planet was further away.

But between the Sun and Mercury and Venus, there are no interstitial cords, chains, pinions, no rack and no direct connection like levers. Nothing as natural leverage and no connected extension is there over an abyssmal break in space, with no steering device between them, with no handle or grip, even for Zeus, and no rope and pulley. With no clear natural connection or immediate directive charge in the space between them, there is no mechanical lattice hidden in the interstices like "universal gravitation". There simply is nothing there in a verifiable quantifiable species like any physically connecting terrestrial force of magnetism, or of weight, density, tension, or pressure, et cetera. 

Whatever unique power drives the Sun, the Moon, and the stars around the Earth, it is not gravity but something else. It must be a celestial power charging them up sui generis and driving them around and also keeping them within the range of their proper spheres. And the "gravitational" environment of the Earth does not move things anyway. It brings things on Earth to rest, in agreement with a detectable principle of compaction and density in the elements and heavy objects around the Earth. Simili gaudet simile, and things that are loose across the surface of Earth tend to come to rest, as the Earth is always already at rest before them, and all three of Kepler's laws of planetary motion are wrong.  

If the sun were exercising a directional power over Mercury and Venus, causing them to orbit it in circular weaves, as it orbits the Earth, this would not be within the order of natural powers in common physics that could be verified by empirical science. It would be something much more rarefied like an order of metaphysical and celestial agency. It would not be something subject to ordinary and direct scientific investigation but evidence of higher celestial powers. Explaining it by “gravity”, “universal gravitation”, and occult action-at-a-distance, therefore, would only be analogous to something unknown involved in the agency, and hidden away in the order of metaphysical hypothesis and theology, et cetera, as logic explains logic.

At the root a metaphysical and esoteric hypothesis, not any applied mechanics, Kepler’s theory of gravity and universal gravitation should at least pass strict logic to be scientifically acceptable.

Since the sun is so much more massive and powerful than Mercury, if it were pulling it around in circles by its much greater "gravity", and this were the force, eventually it would pull Mercury all the way down into it. If Mercury were being pulled around by the sun’s gravity, it would be overwhelmed by it one day and finally fall into it, and the compression would have it.

Since Mercury has not been dragged down into the sun, it must not be being pulled and pushed around by its much greater gravitational field either. Therefore, there must be another powerful neutral gravity zone between them, which must be more powerful than the sun’s own "gravitational field" or natural attendance of compression and collection within itself. A neutral zone of division is situated around it like a chasm, otherwise Mercury would collapse into the Sun, and lose the dynamic of its orbit, suffering complete orbital decay one day with time, and fall into the sun.

Unless the Sun were an intelligent being like a god, with some divine dexterity, it could not itself be pushing and then pulling and directing Mercury around it, and neither could its gravity.

Clearly then Mercury goes around the Sun in its own circuits proper to its own operation and existence, speeding along within the effects of its own sphere, its orbital patterns differentially speciated to it alone. In simple terms, like an ordinance of private property, it is set in motion in and of its own celestial sphere from the other side of the abyss set between it and the Sun.

If Mercury has a unique and separate origin of motion, with a neutral gravity zone between it and the Sun, then there must be one between Venus and the Sun as well; and, in fact, there are many more neutral gravity zones across space. Therefore, there are properties of separate orders involved in celestial momentum, impetus, and mechanics that are different from Kepler’s theory of gravity and universal gravitation, because there are many neutral gravity zones distributed throughout the cosmos. Otherwise all the stars and planets would eventually collapse into each other, and into one heavy point of maximun density, and the point of no return. 

For Kepler, that one heavy collection point of collapse and maximum density, from the inexorable effects of universal gravitation, without neutral gravity zones, would have to be the location of the Sun and its obscure companion foci, the invisible parallel point that lies hidden in the mysterious Keplerian ellipse of blind destruction.

But, vis est ardentior intus, the power is greater within, and it is better to find a way out, better than the false disfigurement of the heliocentric ellipse, and to speak of ranging circles instead, and circular tableau, not ellipses lost in the cosmos, like Newton and Kepler. Not the Keplerian ellipse of absurd abominations and annihilation, not the false scientific materialist ellipse of heliocentric chaos, but the Aristotelian, Platonic, and Socratic circle and sphere are better.

Kepler's second law, the law of equal areas, is wrong, in fact, for at least six reasons. First, the Earth is not moving, and it does not orbit the Sun. Second, the center of the cosmos is not the Sun and some other invisible companion point in space. The center of the cosmos is not two foci of an ellipse, and the Sun orbits the Earth. Only two planets, Venus and Mercury, orbit the Sun as it orbits the Earth. Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn are orbiting the Earth.

Thirdly, the law of equal areas itself contradicts the formulas for velocity, v = wr and d = rt. All other things being equal, the simple rules of math are against Kepler's law of equal areas, since as the time wrapped up in the denominator of "w", Greek omega of v =wr, increases, then velocity and radius do not increase. On the other hand, as radius increases velocity increases, and as velocity increases radius increases, all other things being equal, yet the time required to pass over a given area of space does not increase.

Kepler's law of equal areas is not right for at least three more reasons. It contradicts the real East to West direction of the Moon around the Earth, as the Moon goes the same direction in its orbit as the other planets and stars of the ecliptic. Their common direction is from East to West, clockwise around the Earth when viewed from above the North pole; and when further away at apogee, the Moon loses fewer degrees to the ecliptic over time, and keeps up with the fixed stars and Saturn longer, for example, because it is going faster and the same direction as they, not slower at apogee and the opposite direction. When the closer to Earth at perigee, the Moon loses more degrees to the ecliptic over time, because it is going slower and the same direction around the Earth as the fixed stars in the background, not faster at perigee and the opposite direction.

The fifth reason the law of equal areas is not correct is that gravity is not even a lateral or vertical force, and not moving the planets and stars. Kepler developed his ideas of gravity in part from William Gilbert's theories of magnetism in "De Magnete". He believed that gravity was something like a powerful magnetic force that pushed and accelerated things more when planets were closer to the Sun, and it affected them less when they were further away. He thought the planets were being driven around faster by the dominating mass and quasi-magnetic affect of the Sun, when closer to it, and slower when further away. But gravity is not magnetic or electromagnetic any more than it is not innate to matter, and not detectable of any practical measure in physics at all. So-called heliocentric "gravitation" simply could not be the force driving the planets and stars around the Earth ... from east to west ... every day.

The sixth reason his second law is wrong is that his third law, called the law of "cosmic harmony", "Harmonici Mundi", is also mistaken. His third law is inverted ex situ, still going the wrong way, and does not have any honest general application to celestial mechanics.

The key of all the mathematical formulae sometimes thrown up around his third law is that among the planets, supposedly, the square of the orbital period is proportional to the cube of the semimajor axis of its orbit. This would mean that the ratio of the squares of the periods of any two planets is equal to the ratio of the cubes of their average distances from the Sun. For example, (time of planet A)^2/(time of planet B)^2 = (distance planet A)^3/(distance planet B)^3, e.g. P^2/P^2 = R^3/R^3 for any two planets.

However, if any two planets are examined, one will find that this law does not apply to any of them. For example, if the Moon is planet A, and Saturn is planet B, the time period of the Moon's orbit is greater and Saturn's is less; yet the radius, the so-called "semi-major axis" distance, that is traveresed by Saturn is far greater and the Moon's is much less. These ratios are not proportional by Kepler's calculations, rather they run the other way. The seven traditional visible planets are orbiting the Earth anyway, with Venus and Mercury in weaves as they orbit the Sun, which orbits the Earth. And Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn are orbiting the Earth in ranges of circles from their spheres like the Moon. The basic rule of thumb is that the lesser measure is the lesser force, and the planets that are closer to Earth have less radius and correspondingly slower and longer orbital periods, as they go relatively slower the nearer they are to Earth. Less radius means less velocity, v = wr. The times and distances of their orbits are not all directly proportional to each other by P^2/P^2 = R^3/R^3. As in the example of the Moon for planet A and Saturn for planet B, the greater number in time over the lesser one, is not propotional by Kepler's equation to the lesser number in distance over the greater one.

Rather the principle of cosmic harmony is that the 360 degrees of the ecliptic are composed of three crosses with the Earth at their center. The twelve tropical signs of the ecliptic are in the form of three crosses with the Earth at the crux of them. The Earth is in between the six opposite signs and within the dome of all twelve at the same time, all the time. The only way this can be is if the Earth is at the center of the ecliptic. The seven traditional planets, in contrast, are only ever in one sign at a time. None of the seven traditional visible planets or any other star is ever in more than one sign at a time, and no other star is in all twelve and in between their six opposite signs, all the time, except the Earth. Clearly, the metaxological character and isometric panorma of the Earth is unique, and it is at the center of the ecliptic, and, therefore, also at the center of the cosmos, because there is always only one configuration of the ecliptic per time, and there is only one ecliptic in the cosmos, around which the Sun and the planets and the stars go. Rather the law of cosmic harmony should be that the Earth is the sphere of equilibrium at the center of the cosmos and that divides all the signs.

5. From day one, the Copernican theory that the Sun is the immobile center of the cosmos was never tenable; but it was not until 1783 that William Herschel published a paper on the "Motion of the Solar System in Space", which helped to clarify again some of the basic background points.

In the "Motion of the Solar System in Space", the proper motions of seven bright stars were carefully noted; and it was shown that their movement in the intervening time cycles seemed to converge toward or around a fixed point, from which the sun was always receding. Always in motion around a curve, in the stellar horizon, and receding from the end of the straight line that goes further and further straight-away into the distance, the uniform recession of the sun from the most distant points in the cosmos, that are straight-away from it ad infinitum, and that are so far away from both it and the earth, in fact, is continuous and circular. As much as the horizon of the Earth does not just go straight away, but curves away, it is the same with the orbit of the Sun that does not go flying away but always around and around.

The sun's movement in circles is continuous by the degrees, minutes, and seconds of arc, from perigee to apogee, distributed "per singulos dies" across a limited range of uniform curvature around the earth. The sun is not zig zagging from place to place: clearly, it orbits a stabilized point in space, and as much as there is a circle to it, it happens that the point must also coincide with the earth. The perpetual recession of the sun even at apogee from the points of the cosmos most distant from both it and the earth is circularly consistent. Within a curve, it always is receding uniformly from the point of the cosmos most distant along a straight line running away from both it and the earth; therefore, it must be that the sun orbits the earth.

The earth in contrast is not in recession from any point of the cosmos. "Ad astra atque de profundis est modo in rebus", to the stars and from the depths there is measure in things, and from here to the sun, the depth of space is 3-D. Therefore, the extension in space that is the distance between Sun and Earth may change according to dimensions of width, height, or length. Since the earth is a sphere, and it is apparent that the solar accumulation along the line of width that runs from east to west over the horizon, between the sun and earth and does not go away, is always accumulating uniformly, then the preponderance of the sun's progress in space is primary along the width of the line of motion that separates it from the earth.

In practical terms, the solar system is nothing more than the seven traditional planets, the sun for chief, that orbit the Earth. Hershel's essay on the "Motion of the Solar System in Space" has been described as "a sublime speculation of genius realized by considerations of the utmost simplicity"; and it provides a helpful analysis to resettle the most basic point of the historical immobility of the Earth, in contrast to the Sun. Recognizing the conclusive evidence of astronomy, that the solar system, including the Sun, is in motion, we must say that the Sun does, in fact, orbit a point in space. It only is a matter of practical honesty then to admit that that unique point happens to coincide essentially with the locus of Earth. 

Every four hours the sun loses in cadence about .16438356164 degrees to the plane of the ecliptic, and almost as much to the distant stars. Every four hours it also progresses 60 degrees of its daily circle around the earth. This is equivalent to 1/3 pi radians of arc, 1/3pi(r), and marks out a curve proportionate to its distance from the earth. This incrementally uniform curve is equable to the third side of an equilateral triangle, the other two sides of which would be the first radius A and the second radius B, from the earth to the sun over four hours.

For example, two sides, the radius A to the sun at 10:00 am, and the radius B to the sun at 2:00 pm, would equal the third side C, the straight line through the marginal curve of orbit, as would the 1/3 pi radians or 60 degrees of arc from the field of solar transmission, etc. Every four hours inscribes the arc within a circle that would be equivalent to a side of an equilateral triangle, composed between the sun and the earth, and a 24 hour day inscribes six of them. This is a hexagonal and systematic circular pattern, drawing six equilateral triangles composed within the circle of the ecliptic daily, and demonstrating that the solar motion of the day is none other than what coincides with the sun going around the earth.

Heliocentrism, on the other hand, will admit that the sun and the solar system are in motion, but they say that the sun is going six different speeds at once, which is impossible, even for mere coincidence, and that it is moving towards a nonlocalized area in the vast distance of the comsos known as the "Great Attractor". They say that the sun and the solar system are moving toward, perhaps that would be somewhat around, but not as exactly as in circles, the "Great Attractor", and that no place in the cosmos is authentically at rest. This opinion is mathematically impossible and absurd. There already is an essential principle of fullness and logic existing in the numerical terms themselves, and in the geometry of celestial properties, fixed or cadent; and, therefore, it is better to admit quite simply that the sun is orbiting the earth, and the earth is not moving.


If the sun was crated like a box kite, and its sides labeled A-F, with A the side facing earth and B the opposite side away, C the top and D the bottom, and F the left side, and E the right, from the sun's point of view as the sun faces the earth, and if the earth was boxed likewise A-F, A  the side facing the sun and B the opposite side away, C the North pole and D the South, and E the side to the earth's right, as the earth faces the sun, and F the left, before the sun makes any motion in "pitch" or "yaw", that would be in its declination of altitude or length of separation from the earth, its movement is defined within the continuous ratio of the limit of width, +F(S) > (E)E-, that also separates the sun from the earth.

**F of the Sun > to > E* of the Earth, the Sun reels around the Earth, hinc et inde ab extra, as the day is long, not straightaway more than from the side to the side, and over the west from the east. From the tropics in the seasons and from apogee to perigee, the rolling line that is its lateral motion in width is primary and defines its "pitch" and "yaw".  


Everything has its primary time and place, and the sun follows a simple and balanced field of transmission around the earth, from sunrise to sunset, magnified in semi-circles from one side of the earth at a time, and then the other. It does this moving within the frame set by its left side first, "de situ latere aristera", as it faces earth. A fragment from an ancient Agricolan manuscript, found in an Etruscan tomb, "de solis semper latere occidente proxime accesit quam utres". The sun is always moving primarily to the west as much as anywhere else; and it can only go in one direction at a time, one speed at a time, in fact, and always to the west at the very least a little bit more than anywhere else.

And "the figure of the circle attests to the perfection of bodies both in the macrocosm and in the microcosm. In the macrocosm, the greater bodies such as the heavens, the sun, and the moon are round in shape. So also in man, who is a microcosm, the more noble members such as the head, the heart, and the eye are round in form." Though this image and pattern threaded in the universe that comes back around, and goes around and around, is not yet complete, at times, "if this figure is to be perfect as possible, the line of the universe must be curved into a circle."(1)

And it is obvious that the Moon is as natural as the sun in appearance so that it does not seem to be off-centered or off-kilter, within its circle, and it does not orbit the Earth like an ellipse either. Like the Sun, the Moon is always exactly one radius measure away from the Earth and traveling around it at one speed at a time. The speed and radial distance of the Moon in its circuits around the Earth correspond to each other one to one, in space and astro-weather, in single steps within circles: one place, one rank, one file at a time.

Even if it were exclusively a matter of philosophical preference, to be able to choose reality the way one wants it, Aristotle, Ptolemy, and the Biblical authors all made the wiser and more mathematically accurate choice. The moon orbits the Earth within a distributed range of uniform curvature, a range of classic circles not an ellipse, as much as the Earth is a sphere of vanishing flatness. If seeing is believing and a picture is worth a 1,000 words, all long exposure star trail photography convincingly makes the case also.


Each of the Moon’s orbits circles around in four quarters, and it never goes from perigee to apogee within the range of any one quartered division. From any  horizon to midheaven, from any one quarter section point to the next quarter section point, it never runs the limit from perigee to apogee there; therefore, the probability that the Moon’s orbital paths around the Earth are in the form of an ellipse is nil, since the ellipse would have to be in each of the quarter sections. The aspects of the Moon and the Earth are in stereo around the clock, one circle at a time, with uniform curvature over the passage of time, and from quarter to quarter the Moon ebbs and flows in circles around the Earth, as all long exposure star trail photography shows.



Every orbit of the Moon divides four sections of 6 hours and 12 or 13 minutes, and never from perigee to apogee in any of those limited times, and never going from perigee to apogee within one orbit. Only circling the Earth from perigee to apogee over an extended series of orbits, it simply is not going around the Earth in an ellipse.


A dabbler in arcana and strange signs, Kepler had occult ideas about the sun, the moon, and the cosmos, and added to the development of the unscientific notions of “universal gravitation” and occult action-at-a-distance that would become so pivotal for Newton. With no explainable or practical scientific connections, no applied mechanics, they postulated occult forces exercising powerful and vastly spooky actions-at-a-distance.

After Copernicus, Kepler added the next stamp for heliocentrism with his confusing theories of the ellipse. And ironically, the Keplerian system contradicted Copernicus on almost every point. He altered Copernicus’s basic theory and kept only the two most general Copernican axioms: that the sun was at the immovable center of the cosmos and that the Earth rotates and revolves around it. In Kepler's cosmology, howver, "at" the center was more "toward" and "around" the center. It was a little bit more vague, which was better.

He permanently changed the context of the Copernican center and taught that the Sun was merely one of two foci that shared the center, rather, and that the Earth, of course, was a “wandering star”, a planet like the other planets, yet they all orbited the Sun, and its mysterious companion foci, in ellipses.

Kepler believed that the fixed stars as well were orbiting the sun and this other parallel foci, which did not correspond to any real discernible body or mass in space but was only an invisible point. These two foci, the sun and the invisible point it supposedly shares to create the “gravity” to push and pull the planets and stars around, according to Kepler, composed the center of the ecliptic and the cosmos, and they became the two-points basis of his theory of the ellipse and the "magnetic" occult action-at-a-distance that would be called “gravity”.

Adding a second focal point parallel to the sun resembles in a way Philolaus the Pythagorean's postulate of a Second Earth, not from scientific observation but arcane allusion, a heliocentric theory in spite of appearances, but “isse qui sequitur duos lepores, neutrum capit.” He who chases two rabbits catches neither.

Kepler's theory of the ellipse is mistaken, and all long exposure star trail photography clearly shows that the moon and the planets and stars are all orbiting the Earth in circles. Going around Earth over a range of circles not in an ellipse, from perigee to apogee, the moon is in one place at a time, going one speed at a time, completing one circular orbit at a time. The various circles it completes in order through the days may range gradually in ranks and files, from one circle at a time to the next, between perigee and apogee. These circles range back and forth over many orbits within sometimes ascending and descending radius. Perigee and apogee represent the extremes of the Moon’s range of circular orbits, not the axes of an ellipse; and besides this, Venus’s patterns around the Sun make the sign of a pentagram, and Mercury’s patterns around the Sun make the sign of a hexagram; and what pentagram or hexagram is better set in an ellipse rather than a circle?

Orbiting the Earth within a distributed range of uniform curvature, as a band of circles one at a time not an ellipse, as all long exposure star trail photography demonstrates for all the stars, shows that the pattern goes in circles and circles, over and over again, also by perfection of nature.

The orbital path for every day is unique and consistent, and how many of these circuits has it followed in its career? Only this one that we witness today, on any given day? If this one sphere today is the only one that it has been following overall in its range, that would agree with the earth itself being the only one that it is also, and there is not a second earth. 

If this one circle of the sun witnessed today has been the only one, how many times has it completed the orbit? If it is a great number over many days and years, then by weight of time, the orbital path should be the original one also, ab origine. A "big bang" could not have given rise to such a circle.

Kepler and Galileo laid the groundwork for Newton’s theory of universal gravitation, where Newton simply recast their ideas in a new cover with his book, “The Principia”. "Universal gravitation" was a way to express this practically unexplainable occult action-at-a-distance. After them, Newton invented his inverse square law to further the erroneous notion of “universal gravitation”, with no basis in scientific facts other than Galileo's tricked-up marbles, and Kepler’s theory of the ellipse and of magnetic occult action-at-a-distance.