" "

A circle is a plane figure bounded by one line, and such that all right lines drawn from a certain point within it to the bounding line, are equal. The bounding line is called its circumference and the point, its centre.

— Euclid. Elements Book I

 


Therefore, since the truth altogether excludes the possibility of there being a plurality through which all things exist, it must be the case that that through which all existing things exist is one thing.

Anselm of Canterbury. Monolgion, Chapter III

 

Section I

 

Perhaps only few have realized what a curious part Copernicanism has played in confusion of society, but as Goethe wrote, "among all the 'discoveries' and 'corrections' probably none has resulted in a deeper influence on the human spirit than the doctrine of Copernicus ... Possibly mankind has never been demanded to do more, for consider all that went up in smoke as a result of realizing this change: a second Paradise, a world of innocence, poetry and piety: the witness of the senses, the conviction of a poetical and religious faith ...", etc.(1)

 

 

"We find it hard to picture to ourselves the state of mind of a man of older days who firmly believed that the Earth was the center of the Universe, and that all the heavenly bodies revolved around it. Thus conceived, the Universe was so simple that it was fully and adequately represented, with its true shape and proper motion, in sundry great clocks compacted and painted by the craftsmen of the Middle Ages. We are done now with the twelve spheres and the planets under which men were born happy or unahppy, jovial or saturnine. The solid vault of the firmament is cleft asunder. Our eyes and thoughts plunge into the infinite abysses", and "the imagination is vexed and startled when the astronomers tell us that the luminous ray which reaches us from the pole-star has been half a century on the road: and yet that noble star is our next neighbor ..." (2)

 

 

In "The Origins of Modern Science", Herbert Butterfield wrote that the Copernican revolution "outshines everything since the rise of Christianity and reduces the Renaissance and Reformation to the rank of mere episodes, mere internal displacements, within the system of medieval Christendom. Since it changed the character of men's habitual mental operations even in the conduct of the nonmaterial sciences, while transforming the whole diagram of the physical universe and the very texture of human life itself, it looms so large as the real origin both of the modern world and the modern mentality, that our contemporary periodisation of European history has become an anachronism and an encumberance."(3)

 

Oculos habent sed non videbunt: they have eyes but not that they will see, maybe sometimes for hundreds of years, maybe thousands or forever. "If then the light that is in thee, be darkness: the darkness itself how great shall it be! Si ergo lumen quod in te est tenebrae, quantae illae tenebrae erunt".(4)

 

Yet it is easy to know that the people who visit the Foucault pendulum at the UN in Manhattan, for example, do not ever see or realize in any sensible way that the Earth is moving at all, except by the pendulum, and what they have been told to believe. The audience never recognizes in any practical or intelligent way that Manhattan at the 40thparallel is spinning 795 mph into the east, or 1,165 feet per second, which is about 250 mph faster than a commercial jet flight.

 

"The most effective way to destroy people is to deny and obliterate their own understanding of their own history", and another way to look at the situation there is to understand that Manhattan lands in Salamanca, Spain, as it were, at least in principle if not the scenery, in around a four and a half hour trip, five times a day.

 

Don Quixote was out of his mind to be attacking windmills, when the diabolical Copernican windmill of the ages was everywhere around him, and right under his feet. "Look out", Sancho cried at summer high noon, "this one would move like blazes, yet forever and never you and Rocinante will be unable to comprehend the maneuver. By its incomprehensible engine of gyromancy, you'll be twisted round and round, and you'll fall to the left every time."

 

Later, after dreadful combats against giants and demons, in difficult terrain with no center, they were transported inside the Magic Castle in Las Vegas. "You cannot win at this table either", Sancho advised, yet the Master insisted. "Patience, and shuffle the cards", he said to the dealer, and a harlequin fool reminded them it has been observed "that four out of three people who visit the UN still have trouble with fractions, and cannot remember basic trigonometry".

"People always complain about their memories, never about their minds" he said --- but before all mankind, Sancho Panza would still have his own island government, and the way to figure these things is not too complicated, if committed to memory.

Since memory is the well of reason, and "all men by nature reason alike", and no one can tell that the earth is moving by looking around or noticing anything, including a Foucault pendulum, it becomes a simple matter of knowledge of the parallel of a place, then taking the cosine of it, and multiplying that by the circumference of the Earth, then dividing by the 24 hour day.

Cosine tables are easy to find and save time for this sort of scientific endeavor. For example, lovely Quito, Ecuador, home of El Nacional football, La Maquina Gris, is at the Equator, where cosine (0) = 1, where the circumference of the Earth is 24,902 miles, for close rounding off. Therefore, for velocity of rotation, divide by the 24 hour day, and the spinning and spinning acceleration of the Earth in Quito will be 1038 mph. They say multiply the good in life and divide the evil, and let each day be sufficient unto itself; but that should be a lot of immediate torque de moto quoque to go unnoticed every day, through all the years, but so it goes, without even knocking over a taco stand, according to Judeo-Masonic controlled NASA and the UN.

Since Manhattan is at the 40th parallel North, that also runs through the middle of Spain, and the border between Kansas and Nebraska, take the cosine of 40”, and multiply that into the circumference of the Earth, and then divide by the 24 hour day. That way, one will find a velocity of 795 mph for the "Rockefeller-Rothschild" UN Compound and responsory of world conspiracy, and the entire route of the 40th parallel North. 795 mph is 76% of 1038, which matches the cosine of a 40 degree angle, etc.

Eia ergo! they used to say in Latin, and that would be in tune, at least for the sake of strangeness, and this weirdness would be for real. Rapid Roy the Stock Car Boy, and as fast and incomprehensible as skulls and bones at Yale. Too fast to think a way out of pine boxes, and would somebody be putting innocent minded folks on here, to bury common sense alive, since that cannot be serious in any century, or dark windowless room, yet the check is still in the mail.

When was the last time tourists went 795 mph for free with hat and sunglasses, and did not notice? Hang on to the wallet or the purse and buckle up, if this seems too casual. If the money is already gone, what other things could be missing? 

Mark Twain said "there isn't a parallel of latitude but thinks it would have been the equator if it had had its rights," and for more exact numbers to decimal places, when computing the heliocentric spins, all that is needed are minutes and seconds of arc. For example, in the case of Manhattan, the complete latitude with minutes and seconds of arc is 40”47’24, which brings a more precise rotational velocity of 785.5637707372525 mph.  

With the uniform curvature of arcs of latitude around the Earth, the numbers can seem to run on and on, almost like Pi; and even with only small changes in distance North or South, one will soon begin to discover immediate changes in spinning velocity.

How about that ... ?! In chess notation "?!" means a dubious move and "??" is a blunder. "!?" means interesting. Impressive and fantastic, even for croquet in the rolling yard, when one realizes how much is going on right under one's feet "!?"

 

Look out for the "Noteboom", and "dxc4!" in chess. Where the board does not fall over, everyone is an athlete now. He who does not panic or wreck the board -- files, rows, and pieces -- must have a lot of skill: and the situation becomes more challenging, and trippy, when longitude is brought into consideration.

 

For example, St. Petersburg, Russia and Alexandria, Egypt are both very close to the 30th Meridian East, exactly. Situated right about on it, practically speaking, and they are always there, but Alexandria further to the South is going 368 mph faster all the time than St. Petersburg to the North. One could imagine that with enough time Alexandria would eventually break away, and St. Petersburg would have to fall behind; but even with all the years, for so many loops, it never happens. For amnesia and deja vu, these two cities, for those who think they have forgotten all this before, have remained always on the exact same line of meridian, even though supposedly flying through space at speeds with 368 mph of difference: with Alexandria at 887.3553114207156 mph, from 31”13’N, compared with St. Petersburg at 519.749781017243 mph, from 59”56’20N.

 

According to heliocentrism, to save quiet appearances for a day, it all makes sense. Even though the latitudes are supposedly traveling many different speeds at once, somehow the longitudes and their neighborhoods never get mixed up. However, between so many lines of geography around the world, this should be something impossible for a reasonable person to believe. The place would be utterly scrambled, in extremis, ab centrum usque ad coelum, from the center to the heavens, if this were true. There would not even be room left in little places or big ones for the joy of Pi, perambulations 3.1459265358979323846, or the circular continuations of the seven days of the week, etc.

 

 

But between God and Aristotle, the Great Pyramid of Giza and Machu Picchu, there is no figure of geometry so simple and continuous like the circle. With certainty, Pi distributes itself evenly over all magnitudes in circles and spheres. As any circle of the Earth can only be for one speed at a time, so can the entire sphere of it have only one speed per time, on any given day.

Known like a secret that even if kept, it still goes everywhere, Pi is a simple function of circumference, divided by diameter; and one, therefore, does not actually even need to know the longitude to know velocity of latitude, since the supposed speed along a parallel is evenly distributed throughout the circle. As a part to the whole according to integration of Pi, so is any parallel of division to the circle from which it came.

 

 

For instance, a standard roulette wheel has 38 divisions of longitude” per latitude, where the Earth has 360, and both can only spin one velocity per time, as littlest time integrated in all the time. The turret, cone, ball pockets, and wheelhead of a roulette wheel all go with only one speed. As 1/38 equals .0263157, and 1/360 equals .0027777, all parts for the circle of the sphere are necessarily equable in spatial volume and rate, as to the one larger one of which they are parts, et cetera.

 

Pi distributes on the same basis through all circles and spheres. From circumference to area of a circle, and surface area and volume of a sphere, Pi = c/d = a/r^2 = 4a/r^2 = (3/4)V/r^3. It is one simple universal curve, a poco a poco, through them all.

As the circle is a simple body, so a sphere, and the continuous function that is Pi relates equally well to any integrated measure, as it remains a circular function. Therefore, one does not need to know longitude to figure speed of latitude, since all longitudes are as one according to the parallel of the circle, even as all latitudes are as one, according to whatever corner of the sphere would have no label for direction, or up or down. Since it does not matter what longitude is to figure out speed of rotation for a latitude, then it does not matter what the latitude is either, in the end, because as Pi goes through a circle, so it also goes through a sphere; and one speed will go for the whole pie and ball of wax, as much as the never ending story.

 

In a true sphere, up and down and to the side are arbitrary distinctions, where a form of Socratic justice by division abides in the quality of the measure that penetrates all things.

 

It should be clear where science would build on the strength of common sense that the solid continents cannot be going more than one speed at a time. The Earth is an integral sphere, and the land masses are condensed together, well compacted with impressive Earthy compression. If the place were spinning at different speeds at once, because of "gravitation" from the sun, to account for the universal 24 hour day, the land would be rending itself apart at the seams.

 

"Nulla dies felix", call no day happy by heliocentrism. Rather than fostering life on Earth, the Sun would be destroying it. It woud be cosmic disaster and utter ruin on such a scale that there would not even be space left for "kojo no tsuki", moonlight over a ruined castle, and cherry wine, or tears before bedtime for Chicken Little.

 

If the sky is falling, sunlight may seem percussive too, sort of splitting itself and visible things apart, that were in the dark, as it brings out distinctions in an illuminating way; but for a simple body with density at least like a beach ball, or the Earth, all points become as one in terms of Pi, and in terms of angular velocity per instant of time. As 1/38 of 1.00 is .0263157 and 1/360 is .0027777, so the uniform way of Pi maintains that 1/38 of it, (C/D), is .0826707 and 1/360 is .0087261, et cetera.

 

 

If heliocentrism were correct, the world would be "all in pieces, all coherence gone, the sun lost and the earth, and all would be called in doubt, and no man's wit could well direct him where to look for a compass for their way". It would even destroy the rational equalities of Pi, vis-a-vis the circle, and undermine the basics of simple awareness and cognitive psychology, vis-a-vis the sphere.

 

If the Earth spins at different and separable speeds along its latitudes, hell's bells, then it should be rending itself asunder; but evidently every day everyone sees that it is not. If the Earth were in motion in space, orbiting the sun, it would have to be with a uniform motion conformable to the whole, otherwise it would be plowed up sad tunes in the shredder.

 

If looking at a map could leave any doubts, with the 30th Meridian highlighted through the Gulf of Finland and the Black and Mediterranean Seas, maybe from some uncertainty from something like volatility of the waters in between St. Petersburg and Alexandria, or for some other reason, then consider a set of 8 cities along 4 closely approximate Meridians, all on contiguous territory, with no boats and no water in between, to wit:

 

Acapulco, Mexico: 16”51’49N, 99”52’57W @992.965193260843 mph

 

Isachsen, Canada: 78”46’59N, 103”29’59W @201.8353239407114 mph
_______________________________________________________________

 

 
Maracaibo, Venzuela: 10”39’N, 71”38’W @1019.7103966946445 mph

 

Punta Arenas, Chile: 53”10’S, 70”56”W @622.0201515793425 mph
_______________________________________________________________

 

 
Angarsk, Russia: 52”34’N, 103”49’E @630.682483333274 mph

 

Singapore, China: 1”22’N, 103”48’E @1037.2881768418685 mph
______________________________________________________________

 

 
Alexandria, Egypt: 31”13’N, 29”58’E @887.3553114207156 mph

 

Durban, South Africa: 29”53’S, 31”03’E @899.6280343062893 mph
______________________________________________________________
 
 
And if any of these well connected locations traded places, and went as fast as some other, like Quito, Ecuador (00”15’ S, 78”35’ W @ 1038 mph) or St. Petersburg, Russia (59”57’ N, 30”19’ E @ 519.749781017243 mph) there is no room for doubt that such exchanges would mess up their days and nights even more all year.
 
What a riven sphere of chaos it would be if things were so, and only for the sake of biased motive in astronomy. There would be no peace and no line of proportion left in the world, and every nest and its charm would come undone.
 
St. Petersburg, Russia is so close to the 60th parallel and, therefore, cosine .5, that it would have a 12 hour day and night, if it went as fast as Quito. This means that during the summer solstice there, the sun would be visible for 9 hours and 26 minutes, not 18 hours and 52 minutes; and during the winter solstice, the sun would be visible for 2 hours and 56 minutes, not 5 hours and 52 minutes.
 
 
Because of the spherical curvature of the Earth, and the universal 24 hour day, heliocentrism is forever falls out of sorts --- hoisting itself with its own petard. Not only does the confusion conta naturam subvert space, as it undermines common sense, it wrecks time. 
 
 
If every place were estranged, refried, and spinning as fast as Quito, instead of the universal 24 hour day and night, there would be a very different terrestrial experience worldwide. For a few examples, Manhattan and Salamanca would have an 18 hour and 6 minute day; Paris would have a 15 hour and 44 minute day; Alexandria, Egypt would have a 20 hour and 33 or 34 minute day; St. Petersburg, Russia would have a 12 hour day; Augusta, Georgia would be swerving for a crisp 20 hour and 7 minute day; and Vancouver, British Columbia would have a 15 hour and 44 or 45 minute day … throughout the seasons.
 
 
It seems mankind must suffer for trucks and repair, and if Quito, on the other hand, were going as slow as Manhattan and Salamanca, it would be for a 31 hour and 45 or 46 minute day; as slow as Paris, it would be a 35 hour and 52 or 53 minute day; as slow as Alexandria, Egypt, it would be 28 hours per day. If it were skating along like St. Petersburg, Russia, it would be on the glide at 46 hours and 37 or 38 minutes per day; if like Augusta, Georgia for velocity of place and lost golf balls, it would be in the calendar for 365 days a year, pro rata, to the tune of 28 hours and 45 minutes each one. If it was grooving to the tunes on the radio like Vancouver, British, Columbia, it would be enjoying an expansive day of 37 hours and 46 or 47minutes all year … throughout the wonderful seasons.
 
 
For the simple schedule of time and space and a day, heliocentrism goes hoisting itself with its own petard, with extreme velocities and crazy clocks. Shattered everywhere on the wrong side of Occam’s razor, that plurality should not be posited without necessity, “pluralitas non est ponenda sine necessitate,” it turns the small world upside down.
 
 
In putting time before space, for the sake of the universal 24 hour day, which must be done since everyone knows that the day is 24 hours, heliocentrism tries to separate elements that on Earth and in nature cannot be separated. Since time necessitates space as much as space necessitates time, they are as inseperable as the circle. Like the only two sides of the straight line in Occam’s razor, there cannot be one without the other.  
 
 
For a technical talk shop sentence, "de Newtonio", therefore, "de motu in principio", au milieu d'une phrase, say, one may say: that the multitude of natural orders between them, time and space, that arise in the interstitial continuum, beginning even from Cambridge-on-Cam, and Libor of the Bank of England, or Greenwich Mean Time, do comprise all the options and operative events, so many operations and multivarious, that are at play and dilations of work and energy; however they may be for market options, in vis situ potens, computational by whatever degrees derivative: accidental, coincidental, or efficient means considered, of course, by computing the figure, it is veridical science that time and space are simply mutual and of formal necessity in terms of the natural world. Vis-à-vis they weave the terrestrial matrix by perpetual compromise and concurrence of course, crown, and claim, etc. And, therefore, the simple circular continuations of the days and weeks and phases of the Moon pass the lot around, even as something in common, and by convention for all with wits to see.
 
There is time because everything in creation cannot take place at the same time. Everything cannot occur instantaneously, and natural motion cannot take place in an instant. Natural motion is gradual, and there is space because everything gradual in nature cannot happen in the same place. All things that could happen can happen only within a sufficient range of spatial distribution.
 
For whatever occurrence there must at least be be sufficiency, as Keith Richards said, "you need some space and some time. Space and time is everything", even if "less is more".
 
Far out, and if anybody would imagine that using the formula for angular velocity in a tricky way somehow would save heliocentrism, because there as radius increases velocity increases, v=wr, yet it does not save it, because radius is the full extent and includes all intermediate points.
 
 
In the Psalter of St. Jerome, one of the petitions is for a "spatium bene vivendi", "a space well lived", or "a space of good living", which represents also a generous disposition of time. Without the space, there would not be the fire, not even in the mind, and without the fire there would not be the time, and without those there would not be the breath or the spirit, as much as there would not be any means to begin. Within its own space and time, the Psalter of St. Jerome says, "Ut hi versiculi proficiant mihi ad vitam aeternam, et ad remissionem omnium peccatorum, et ad spatium bene vivendi ...", "that these verses may profit me to eternal life, remission of sins, and to a space well lived".
 
 
There must be energy of whatever presence, particle or wave, that may be in occurrence, because there is no time or space without some quality, "ens inquantum ens". Nothing that exists exists without some formal qualification of being, and there is no quality of being without energy, as there can be no energy without quality of being, the charism that carries a circle. This much should be clear, for instance, that light is also energy that illuminates time and characterizes space, as much as light would add to things by illustration.
 
 
To simplify the confusion of heliocentric Uraboros lost in the cosmos, the old dragon swallowing his tail, rather than denying that he is there, hiding in the aether, remember algebra class with a little notepad and the universal formula d = r x t. Distance is space, time for time, and rate is energy, and the way things are is simple enough even between megalodon and the beach. The elementary formula of distance, space, and time is a universal sign for how all measurable things work, as much as time, space, and energy are the big three in common, pro rata, and form a natural trinity. Wherever they go, the origin of one will explain the origin of the other two.
 
 
Ex astris lunaque ad terram est modo in toto rebus. From the stars and moon to the earth there is measure and proportion in all things. Yet for the sake of appearances, and the universal 24 hour day, which are undeniable, heliocentrism puts time separated illogically before space, and makes confusion out of all other normal weights and measures.
 
 
After conclusive proofs provided by Foucault’s pendulum that the Earth is not moving, esse quam videri, if there could be any doubts, all any reasonable person would need to do, to be certain, is place an interferometer underneath the bob, in the center where it swings back and forth. Since Michelson-Morley conducted the first successful interferometer experiments in 1887, they all have shown conclusively that heliocentrism is not possible.
 
 
Besides the negative results of all interferometer and aether drift experiments for heliocentrism, the Earth is still one simple body. It is the one and only one that it is. Incidentals and accidentals like the seven seas and varying terrain, from the Grand Canyon to Mt. McKinley and the Himalayas, do not change the substantial priority that the Earth is one; and it is the only one that it is, and therefore a truly simple body in space. It has a simple quality of identification in itself that Scotus called “haecceitas”, which means “thisness”, as in “this that is unique.”(5) A distinction of authenticity, haecceitas is a common property of all simple bodies and simple motions in space, and the Earth has it, hic et ubique terrarum.
 
All over its unique place, unified in accordance with reality, tellecor is one true media with “haecceitas”, and can only go one speed at a time, with a uniform motion conformable to the whole. Otherwise the land would be coming apart in motion with no stable zone, "and if a kingdom be divided against itself, that kingdom cannot stand. And if a house be divided against itself, that house cannot stand."
 
Et si regnum in se dividatur non potest stare regnum illud. Et si domus super semet ipsam dispertiatur non poterit domus illa stare.(6)
 
However, an Earth completely at rest in as many regions, territories, and fields as there could be can still account easily for the universal 24 hour day, and all the details. As little truths are in agreement with others, and with the greater truth of all, "life can be really simple, but we insist on making it complicated". 
 
 
They say beauty is in the eye of the beholder and perhaps "not something imposed but something immanent"(7). As much as that may be, there should also be something true about it, since they do not say beauty is a lie. It may seem at times the truth "is not something imposed but something immanent" too, even if difficult to accept; yet the truth is not a form of immanence that needs to move for it to be true, for "the truth is one, and in it there is no place for progress". 
 
Veritas veritatum does not need any objects to be set in motion as an example, since it already was so. Things in motion may give occasional evidence of what is true, but they do not make the truth formally true. Something substantial and preexistent like the truth, since it does not change, does not need occasional objects to be what it is.   

The truth simplifies and logic would assimilate the truth, it goes without saying, and logic is also the logic predicated of simple facts and evidence. Nothing can tie science together better than the truth. Scotus would say that there is infinite logic on one side of awareness and finite logic on the other. The finite logic makes discoveries of the finite, and infers the infinite by assimilation of the impressions that runneth over; but the finite is still logical, as is the infinite, even though finitude is always less. Since logic is common to them both, the division between them is something else and something more than mere quantity, even if there is not a word for it. Something ineffable yet logical and clear, as much as the infinite cannot be quantified, or the difference between the infinite and the finite numbered, or even the finite in its total domain all counted, when it runs beyond practical numerabilty, divides them. The division per se is something else, even from exponential code, since it is also true that mere quantity cannot give rise to consciousness or self-awareness.

Since it is as real as a constant accord with actual facts, the earth in its physical domain is even like the truth itself, and of an order that does not need to move or be moved to be true, whether what is true about it is taken in some metaphysical or physical sense of magnitude.

Spheres form a category of simple bodies with unique geometrical properties as a class, that no other figures have. For example, for any given volume, the sphere is the shape that has the smallest and most efficient surface area. This is why it appears in nature so much, from bubbles and water drops, to stars and planets. The motion of a sphere is simple, and any motion of a simple body is conformable as a whole to the point of origin. A cue ball or baseball can only go one speed at a time, of course, and be in one place at a time. For a painful example from the world of sports, if Ron Cey, "the penguin", from professional baseball was ever accidentally struck in the head with a curve ball, unfortunately that was where it would have had to be, betwixt and between from a bad pitch at that time.

 
 
No matter how twisted the course, the essential uniformity of motion in a solid sphere, that is not coming apart, is a natural law of physics. For it is one conbobulation, one spherical wheel, that moves from point to point, one point at a time, and the craziest knuckleball or trickiest golf shot cannot defy the simplicity of nature. The motion must start in one place and end in another, having essential uniformity, de moto quoque sive ab utroque, from the "causae per se", the efficient cause, the whole way, going only one uniform speed at a time, and being in one place at a time.
 
A basketball always spins one speed at a time. The uniform speed of the spin may increase or decrease; but it always goes one simple velocity per the little points of time; and it is that simple that the Earth cannot spin at two different speeds, or be in two different places at once.
 
 
With a little motorized pin in a baseball, the whole baseball will rotate conformably with the singular speed that would be applied per time by the pin’s engine, even as the speeds are increased or decreased. There could be settings from fast, medium, to slow, and whatever the setting is, from fastest to slowest, that is how fast the ball spins.
 
 
If acentric cosmologists raced around with office chairs with spherical wheels and crashed into walls, blind as bats, and went out the windows off the cliffs, it would be the same. Like the compass of a code, every curve in 3-D proceeds one integral point at a time, and every point along its line is one solution of the equation. Otherwise things lose their form and come apart.
 
"Woe for this grief passing all griefs beside. Never delusion of arbitration like this"(8), and if some cogitators enjoy this sort of pain, and would like to analyze this further, because having had experience of things like merry-go-rounds and Ferris wheels, they say that when a big spinning wheel is going around and around, it feels different on the outside from the inside, because the outside is going faster, yet motion is a quality, and, as a quality, a simple derivative of the origin and generation of its source. And particular leverage and radial velocity from the center of a wheel are not exactly the same. 
 
For fundamentals, four of the basic qualities identified by the ancient Greeks were hot or cold and wet or dry. "From the very earliest times, mankind divided all physical matter into the four elements: fire, earth, air, and water "(9). The correspondence of the four most basic polar elements and qualities as in hot-fire, dry-earth, wet-water, and cold-air all necessarily involve terms predicable of motion and subsistent stability too, as much as Dante would say that "heat cannot be separated from fire, or beauty from The Eternal". 
 
Like elementals in binary codes, the qualities characterize the way things are and the way they subsist. There are at least four more like bitter or sweet and rest or motion that exist in nature as essential characteristics and signs of most basic properties. Like salt and oil, and the tension of harmony and strife, according to Empedocles, even if they add up to complex positions, the qualities and elements remain simple in themselves and dipolar across a continuum. By the terms of their own properties of self-adherence, they are simply being what they are across the natural continuum.
 
"It makes more sense, therefore, to think that many things have common elements, as words share letters, rather than assume that anything can exist without them".(10) And besides the fact that it is true, if it seems trivial to say that motion is an elemental quality, like hot or cold and wet or dry, it is because heliocentrism and relativity would have everybody fooled out of their minds, and everything in motion, and nothing at rest. As Leibniz said, in keeping with the false heliocentric rubric of total motion, "there is not any one body that is perfectly and entirely at rest, but we frame [only] an abstract notion of rest by considering the thing mathematically."(11) 
 
The reason for saying motion is a simple and authentic quality in contrast to rest is that after so many years in the land of the lost, in the abyss of heliocentrism and relativity, authenticity itself has little or no value across the board. Authenticity is wasted and drugged with weird science, buried under a flood of uncertainties and deception. Yet there is still a fundamental difference between an object in motion and an object at rest, and the two distinctions account for a range of oppositions.
 
Since modern philosophy makes itself obscure, incomprehensible, or dizzy, in its search after the nature of things, from constantly going round and round, they imagine that the Earth is also going round and round too, and capable of moving in many directions at once. It does not really make sense, and the theory is merely of emotional appearance, which rises out of their own internal condition; and by mere mental projection of what they wish, they suppose it to be the reality of nature. Therefore, "they think that there is nothing stable or permanent, but only flux and motion, and that the world is always full of every sort of motion and change".(12)
 
Contrary to heliocentrism and relativity, however, everything in the universe is not in motion, or even so-called relative motion; and motion, in fact, is in contrast to rest, as much as hot is to cold and wet is to dry. "Speaking generally, rest is the contrary of motion", and rest is existentially substantial.(13) Something as real as the day, whatever the weather is like, whatever time of year, it already is plainly evident to everyone that the Earth is at rest, without having to think about it too much.
 

From disposition of the elements involved, motion may be an effect as much as a prime quality, or an affective quality, and an "affection" in the Aristotelian sense: a temporay condition or special affect, but overall motion is a qualification uniquely distinct from rest. Aristotle defined motion as the passing from potency to art in some subject that is acted upon by an agency. For motion to occur the subject acted upon must have the proper disposition with respect to the potency targeted for actualization. The proper disposition would stem from a given quality. Like chemsitry and fuel, a specific quality in an element at times may increase the energy and value of motion more than some other generic quantity, which does not share the exact same attributes. From the power of the quality also involved, sometimes less is more: a lesser amount from one potion or mechanism may represent more force than a greater amount from another. Quality is inescapable ab origine, so it naturally forms an important part of physics and proper theories of motion.

 

Perhaps some may draw intellectual distinctions between immanent and local motion; but, however such a discussion could be, in the end, the quality is the quality is the quality, as much as a rose is a rose is a rose. Whether science may see a motion as immanent in a species or local in space and time, the motion or action must also occur within some part of a plenum, συν πλήρωμα, and there will be always some quality of some kind.

 

"And wisdom is justified by all her children", yet Einstein's relativist school of instruction that everything is in motion, and nothing at rest, would also mean that everything changes, and nothing at all remains the same. No kind or category would remain simply as it is, ens inquatum ens, and any simplicity abiding in the natural order would have to give way to ultimate confusion and chaos. 

 

Even if all natural motion represents change of some kind, and all change involves some sort of motion, yet many things in nature do remain the same, since there is a quality of sameness as species endure. Simple facts are often the strongest, and the more things change, the more they stay the same: "for truth is one, and in it there is no place for progress".

"Plus ca change plus c’est le meme chose".

 
Yet no progress without truth, and the substantial record of concurrence demonstrated from all aether drift tests and light-beam interferometry experiments, from Michelson-Morely in 1887, down to today, has shown that motion is an authentic quality in contrast to rest, and that the earth is not moving. Galaev's aether drift and radiowave experiments of 1998-99, and his optical tests of 2002, also substantiated that motion is a simple quality, and that absolute motion does exist --- "absolute" here not in a Newtonian sense of infinite, but "absolute" in the sense of authentic and simply real. As Reginald Cahill summed up the findings: "these very different experiments show ... 'absolute' [authentic] motion is one of the most startling but suppressed discoveries of the twentieth century."(14)
 
It is the same way with motion as ontology, and all things in motion always have at least four fundamental attributes of any quality or measure in:
 
1. Magnitude
2. Degree of concentration
3. Level of refinement (excellence, efficiency)
4. Kind of origin
 
Everything that exists, whether formally or materially, is in some quality and number, and follows from fundamental characteristics of elements that run like ABC’s from one extreme to the other. And the spinning wheel of a merry-go-round only goes round one speed per time. Even if it tilts or wobbles, it all tilts or wobbles together, and it cannot turn at two or more different speeds at once.
 
It is the same principle in all times and places that a wheel or sphere that is sound will have only one volume of velocity per instant. All various radial extensions from the center will go about conformably with the integral motion of the axis at the center, otherwise there would be hidden in it the beginning of some broken division, complexionis scala adversa. Turning from one axis of origin, a wheel has one uniform velocity, as much as simple things like merry-go-rounds and the earth.
 
Because to an accidental tourist on a Ferris wheel, the overall force of motion may feel greater to him on the outside of the wheel, does not mean that the spinning wheel is going around two different speeds from the middle of the wheel to the edge. The radius of a circle, whether in a wheel or in a sphere, is like the beam of a catapult. When Edward I built Warwolf, the largest trebuchet in Britain at the time, it was with a long beam because the greater length meant the English army could use the siege engine with more advantage against the Scots, launching bigger and heavier rocks at their castles. However long the beam, when it launched heavy stones and quarried rocks, it launched them with one uniform motion from end to end.
 
So it goes from the axis of rotation. If there was fellow A situated at the edge of a large Ferris wheel, and another fellow B at the center, the leverage of momentum gathered by A on the outside would be more mechanically advantageous to launching him further, if it were necessary, than B, because the mechanical advantage of leverage created for launching in the case of A is increased by the greater length of radius. While the circular velocity between them is the same measure of speed from the center, in so many revolutions per units of time, as they go around, a greater leverage of momentum for launching far into the distance may be gathered in position A, on the outside. After all, a quarterback or pitcher throws from the hand not the elbow or the shoulder, if science should say so. From there it is more mechanically advantageous and better for launching further than from the center. Heavy weights and knuckleheads will fly farther, if they are launched from further out on a big wheel or catapult, but the big wheel turns one speed at a time from the center, just like the arm of a catapult.
 
A moving vehicle and a moving wheel can only go one speed at a time, and be in one place at a time; and a simple body cannot go two or more different speeds at once, no matter how they would escape reality; and it does not make any difference between a sphere or a standard wheel. In terms of simple velocity of motion, the difference between a sphere and a wheel is a distinction without a difference. A car or motorcycle that ran on perfectly spherical tires instead of the normal ones, whenever they would get a ticket for speeding, would all be the same business. Whatever rpms, the rate of measure would have an essentially uniform and conformable number to the whole, as another simple body in motion.
 
So it goes with a wagon wheel down a hill, or a spherical one as well, rolling the axial source of motion in extension through all the parts. As any one radius goes one speed, so all the other radii and segments within any circles of the sphere will go the same speed, from surface to center. Like the teeth of a comb, the comb all goes the same way.
 
The rotary motion of helicopter blades or a lawn mower or the beaters of an electric hand-held mixer are integrated the same way, going one for one with the speed applied. They can go slow, medium, or fast, but they all go uniformly only one speed at a time.
 
If some would continue to imagine that somehow the Earth could be in flight multiple speeds at once, because an administrator from NASA sent them a Christmas card, or something else like an envelope with money in it, and to satisfy the bizarre demands of heliocentrism, and because it is a sphere, remember that motion is a simple quality and traceable to its source. 
 

If two separate runners on a large circular track are positioned with one on the far outside circuit, and one on the nearest inside circuit, the one on the outside will have to run faster to keep up for a go-around, because he would be covering a greater distance each lap, and they would also have separate origins of motion. If they were only connected by a string, to keep the string level in line between them, as they would go around the track, the one on the inside route will not have to run as fast, and they would have separate origins of motion. Two separate runners, connected only by a string, would not be composed as a simple body and would not have a conformable origin of motion.

If the two runners ran in place at the same individual rates it took for them to stay in line, when they were in forward motion around the track, from the outside and inside circuits, then the fellow on the outside would be running faster in his place.
 
For all the tempo and evermore, turning and burning, if they were set in chairs on a long mechanized telephone pole, horizontal to the ground, that also would be of one common origin of motion from the center, naturally, then with one runner chaired at the end that is the edge, and the other the center, as the telephone pole rotated around, fast, medium, or slow, they would then be going the same circular velocity around (v = wr), with one uniform origin of motion as in a simple body.
 
If the runners were replaced by self-animated golf balls, that could roll around the track on their own, as if they had minds and were alive to the scene, the one on the outside would need to roll faster than the one on the inside, to keep up, when they were separated and had separate origins of motion around the track. But if they were superglued to tees placed as pegs in the horizontal telephone poll, they would not even need to roll anymore to make the trip around; and like egg beaters, they would be going the same circular velocity around, from the common origin of motion in the telephone pole.
 
Since motion is as simple as a quality, as much as croquet and wooden mallets, all velocities can be generalized in three great categories as slow, medium, or fast; and a simple body like the Earth, or the sun, or the moon, cannot go two or more different velocities at once or be in two or more different locations at the same time.
 
A stereo turntable, a ball, or a solid sphere with density and uniform curvature like the Earth is one for one in spin. If there was any wisdom in a simple view by trigonometry, take a look at a little 45 record going around. The whole record turntable and the little 45 all go around and around at the same speed, and like that for the whole song! Amazing and scientific, and it is the same way for a 33.

The record is one for one in spin and whatever music, and if one plays a 33 or a 45 at the wrong setting, it will sound too fast and high for the 33, or too low and slow for the 45, as long as the song plays, whenever these two speeds are confused.

Even with the oceans, the land masses are substantial enough that it is the same with the Earth. The Earth cannot be spinning many different speeds along its latitudes at once; but this sort of confusion, that the Earth should be flying around through space, around the Sun, at many different speeds at once along its latitudes, to account for the universal 24 hour day, is what heliocentrism would have one believe.

 

 

However, between 0 and whatever numbers, there can only be one volume of motion that would affect the entire Earth at a given time. There can only be one straight line between any two points that will form the radius of whatever unit circle. If the movement of that simple line is a simple rotation around either end in a plane, coinciding with any point in space, the whole line rotates with one speed from the origin. Whether it rotates or not at all, it does so with only one unit volume per time.

 

The minute, hour, and second hands of any clock show the same obvious principle: that the the motion of a sphere is simple and uniform. Where the hands do not go around at the same speed, and do not fall into chaos, they represent three different spheres of time.

 

People have an innate ability to recognize the truth when they hear it; and first principles "are not the privilege of the few but the many, inasmuch as first principles are common and known to all".(15)

"A common conception of the mind is that which is conclusive for anyone who hears it,"(16) and it should be clear that the spherical curvature of the Earth, and the prevalence of the 24 hour day, and the conformable motion of record players and baseballs, etc., prove that the Earth is not moving,nand that the Sun orbits the Earth. 

 

Therefore, the cosmology of the Earth is with a center that exists with necessary mathematical density. Like any integrated circular function, whatever the domain, there is only one range: and the domain of the earth is characterized by transfixed immobility, as its full range would go by numbers and numbers into outer space.

 

*(tellecor would be a geocentric neologism to designate the Earth and its unique place at the center of the natural order of the cosmos. It may sound reminiscent of a corporate a telemarketing office, but in the ancient days the Romans called the earth, "telluris", and "tellus", like the name Telluride in Colorado, and the root "cor" also means center or court.)